Category Archives: Atheist

Reasons Part 4 – Unconvincing Arguments

Continuing on from last week I’m listing some of the more common reasons why many people fail to believe in gods or God.  So far I’ve talked about different kinds of atheism, about evidence and how it does not lead to gods and about how god isn’t necessary to living.  Alone each of these reasons may not be sufficient to reject belief in gods in the face of the reasons that people do have for belief.

This week I’ll look at some of the common proofs of god(s) existence and try to explain why they are not convincing enough for many atheists to make that leap of faith.  This time I want to start off by saying that I accept that these arguments are enough to convince some, they just don’t convince me.

The Argument from Design

Many theists talk about the “totality of existence” being evidence for God.  We live in a universe that seems perfectly suited to life.  It is beautiful and apparently orderly, at least the rules of physics remain orderly wherever we look.  Surely such a wondrous thing is proof of design?  If we can infer design then there must be a designer and only God or the gods could have designed it.   The argument for design says that the universe exists so God or gods must exist.

On the face of things this seems pretty reasonable.  Well apart from the fact that the universe isn’t that beautiful or that orderly.  Look at evolution for example and you see massive waste.  Evolutionary dead ends have seen the extinction of 99% of all life that has ever lived on this planet.  You see carnivores that have to kill in order to survive.  You see lives snuffed out for no reason.  You see suffering and death, destruction and torture at every turn.  Human beings, supposedly the pinnacle of God’s creation, are wrought with flaws too numerous to mention.  We are less created in God’s image than thrown together out of whatever working parts could be found.

However, even if the universe were a perfectly ordered and beautiful thing, and I’m not disputing that we can see beauty and order within it, even if it were perfect, why should there be a designer?  Modern science has shown us that natural explanations exist for a wide variety of thinks we once thought of as designed.  Laws are devised to explain the effects of gravity, theories are formed that explain natural processed like evolution or the chemical imbalances in the brain that lead to some mental illnesses.  Gods offer no such explanations.

The “Ontological” Argument

The ontological argument uses logic and reasoning based on an a priori proof proposed by Anselm of Canterbury way back in the 11th century.  It is an argument that seeks to put God in a place where He is necessary for existence.

  1. God is that entity than which nothing greater can be conceived.
  2. It is greater to be necessary than not.
  3. God must be necessary.
  4. God necessarily exists.

Ever since I first heard this I’ve always disliked it.  I find it childish and silly and I really don’t see why anyone takes is seriously.  That’s why I’m not going to bother with it beyond saying that you could apply this to anything at all.  Simply substitute the word “god” for something else silly like the Flying Spaghetti Monster or Eric the Time Travelling Viking.  The “logic” then seems less compelling, doesn’t it?

The First Cause Argument

Unlike the ontological argument I actually like the first cause argument.  Among my “real life” friends who hold to no particular religion but retain a belief in a mysterious “something” the first cause is a favourite reason.  “Well something must have started it all off” they say and they are quite correct.  If everything has a cause then the universe must have a cause.  Isn’t it fair to say that this cause must be God?

Actually, no.  If you want to put God up as a first cause then that is just begging the question of who or what caused God.  If everything needs a cause then so does God.  If God doesn’t need a cause then why does the universe?  Saying that God is uncreated and perfect, that He somehow lives outside of the universe and outside of time, well, that isn’t satisfactory.  It’s just begging the question again.  If God was already perfect then what reason did he have for creating the universe?

Also, if the universe was caused why does that mean that God was the cause?  Perhaps Odin was the cause, perhaps Ra, perhaps some unknown, natural process.  There is room for doubt and lots of it.

Many believers assign properties to a creator in order to get the idea to fit their preconceived notions. For example some might say “if God is the designer, then He would have designed the natural processes by which these things are created.” How would we possibly be able to tell if that were the case?  It is an unfalsifiable assertion.  That isn’t objective and it doesn’t hold up to scrutiny. The truth is that we simply do not know what caused the Big Bang event (or last Big Bang event) and so it would be dishonest to claim to know. Perhaps it was a creator, perhaps it was an unknown but natural event. I’ve read some mind boggling theories about overlapping dimensions and quantum states of existence that try to explain mathematical ideas for a natural first cause. They make my head spin and I haven’t a clue if they are even close to the truth.  However, at least they don’t rely upon an unverified entity.

Many theists assume a priori that their god exists and try to fit evidence around that assumption.

“If everything has a first cause” is an assumption based on powerful evidence. Everything we know has a cause but we’re not talking about everything we know, we’re talking about a unique event in space time that is beyond our experience and possibly beyond our conception. It is unrealistic to claim knowledge of this event and assign it to a god. What connection do you have to God that makes him the first cause? A 3400 year old collections of scrolls dealing with two distinct creation myths. Everything else has been assigned to God based on your presupposition that God exists.

If there are incorrect assumptions about God then we need to strip them away. We need to start afresh and reexamine the evidence and the ideas without assumptions. Not an easy task with thousands of years of culture and faith built on the back of earlier creation myths and earlier ideas.

The problem, of course, is that when we strip everything away we are left with nothing but our own thoughts. We are placed in the same situation as Descartes and must define our knowledge from a tenuous grounding. “I am thinking, therefore I exist” tells us nothing of the past or future. We must build on our reason with evidence and assumptions but keep in mind at all times that we may well be deceived by our assumptions or by bad evidence. Descartes use the ontological argument to escape this trap, something that I would consider a false assumption and some pretty circular reasoning.

I originally wrote this for Off the Map – Atheist in 2009

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The Christian Label

The label of Christian is of little value when seeking to understand what it means about the person taking on that label. It doesn’t tell us what that persons moral values or outlook are nor does it really tell us what they believe.

The label itself is an umbrella term or superset of a wide variety of beliefs. Take some examples to highlight this.

Fred Phelps, that hateful bigot of the Westbro Baptist Church who spends his days spewing his hatred of gay people and anyone else who can think of in the name of a tyrant god. This man represents everything that is twisted and cruel about modern Christianity. Is he a Christian? Of course.

John Shelby Spong is a liberal theologian, an academic who talks of compassion and reform. He seeks a move away from theism and an embrace of a shared system of values across all faiths and none. His religion is a hope rather than a certainty and, as far as I know, he doesn’t use his Christianity as the blunt tool to bludgeon others into supporting it. Is he a Christian? Of course.

Joseph Alois Ratzinger, Bishop of Rome and current Pope is another academic. While Spong is liberal and open, Ratzinger is conservative and insular. The recent child rape scandals that have rocked Catholicism have turned his policies into protection of the church. In my view he is a criminal responsible for the continued protection of child molesters from secular justice and he should be tried in a court of human rights. Is he a Christian? Of course.

Rowan Williams is Archbishop of Canterbury and is currently presiding over a near schism within the Church of England. He seems to be a decent enough fellow with liberal views regarding the ordination of women and with the open acceptance of gay clergy but he plays a game of internal politics against other bishops who want the opposite. He is undoubtedly intelligent and articulate and he believes in a literal God rather than Spong’s conceptual god. Is he a Christian? Of course.

When someone announces that they are a Christian which of these models do we most closely associate with them? Are they liberal or conservative? Are they pro-gay or anti-gay? Are they feminist or misogynist? Are they pro-life or pro-choice? Are they hateful bigots or compassionate advocates for equality? Who knows? All we can tell about them from the label is that they believe in some sort of god in a loosely Christians tradition. We don’t know anything more about them than that.

So when someone introduces themselves as a Christian it tells us very little about their views and so cannot, in all fairness, be judged on those views because we don’t know what they are.

The same applies for those who judge atheists based on nothing more than pre-conceived notions.

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Secular Humanism – Need to Test Beliefs

Secular HumanismThe first tenet of secular humanism is the need to test beliefs. To quote from the council of secular humanism “A conviction that dogmas, ideologies and traditions, whether religious, political or social, must be weighed and tested by each individual and not simply accepted by faith.”

I want to point out that this isn’t a rejection of faith but it is a willingness to examine our beliefs. Secular says nothing about God, god(s) or the beliefs or lack thereof that people hold about them. Atheistic denotes an actual position being taken (no positive belief in god). A secular humanist with a religious belief can focus on the human aspects of living without rejecting their god. Faith and secular humanism are not mutually exclusive but I think it is still rare to find a religious secular humanist or at least a person who takes on both labels for themself.

Buddha wrote: Believe nothing, no matter where you read it or who has said it, not even if I have said it, unless it agrees with your own reason and your own common sense.

The need to test beliefs is not the need to reject everything that is held on faith. It is a requirement to ensure that those beliefs are meaningful. They should have some basis in reason, logic, fact or function that make them worthwhile retaining.

Let’s take the life of Jesus Christ as an example, not to be contentious but to illustrate the point. Assume that you hold that Jesus lived a life as a teacher and example to man on how to live a good life. You decide to emulate the man and his actions in your own life. The actual events are not provable in the independent historical record. The miracles performed are not repeatable in the modern age. Are the lessons still valuable though? Does this way of living work? Does the philosophy of helping others and personal sacrifice that Jesus personified make for a happier and more fulfilling life? I think that even the non-religious could agree with these points in a general way.

On the subject of religions though lets take a specific Christian ritual and test it in accordance with the first tenet of secular humanism. Something that has frequently been mentioned in atheist blogs is the issue of the communion wafer representing the flesh of Christ in Roman Catholic ritual. What purpose does this serve? A Roman Catholic might tell you that it is a literal transubstantiation and that by taking bread and wine as the flesh and blood of Christ they are bringing themselves closer to the divine. For me the issue of transubstantiation is purely one of faith. The bread is not literally divine flesh, I could test it to determine this if I wished. Is it spiritually divine flesh? I see nothing to indicate that it is or that it isn’t so I must reserve judgment until evidence is provided or reject the idea based on what I do know.

What benefit does the transubstantiation ritual provide? For the faithful it is a way of drawing the group together in something that is shared only between them. It fosters ties within the religious community. It also marks them as separate from other factions of Christianity and other faiths. This could well lead to divisions within disparate communities. Indeed it has. The same could well be said of any other ritual from Sunday service to morning prayer, from the Bah-Mitzvah to the ritual ablutions of the Bahá’í Faith.

As human beings we learn things as we grow. We take what works and pass it on. Sometimes a lesson that is passed on does not keep the reason with it. An example might be the avoidance of pork in Jewish and Islamic religions. Pork spoils easily and contains a number of parasites that can be passed to humans. Avoiding this meat may make a lot of sense to a people who live in a hot country with poor sanitation and methods of long term food storage. Does it make sense today with modern refrigerators, relatively clean meat processing plants and more hygienic storage of food? The religious restriction remains, independent of the food hygiene issue. Perhaps it didn’t arise from that or perhaps society moved on and the lesson remained behind.

It is important to take stock and reassess the things that we have learnt or discovered in order to ensure that we haven’t got them wrong. I should point out that this obviously includes the assumption of atheism as well as religion. Are my views on religion appropriate given what I know about the world, history, philosophy and science? Have I been introduced to new information or a new way of looking at current information since taking on the label of atheist? Do my views still remain valid given this new information? In all honesty I can say that they do, although my views on religion have changed considerably in the last few years. There are some interpretations and rituals that I view as horribly destructive or socially repressive but there are equally some that I see as positive and worth retaining in a secular life.

I walk away believing I am right, but open to the idea that I am not.

Finally the tenet states that it is the individual who must test and assess a conviction. We all have our own criteria for belief. Some of us require hard evidence, some accept witness testimony, others believe second hand evidence or viable theories, others still place value on workable ideas and axioms even when they can never be proven. I think most of us take a mixed approach to ideas and the burden of proof. That’s why we must all make up our own minds about what is true and what is false.

That’s my take on the first tenet. Hopefully I’ll write about the second tenet next week.

I originally wrote this for the Off the Map – Atheist web site. Feel free to share and comments are welcome.

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Reasons Part 1

I think that it is fair to say that most atheists have reasons for not believing in gods.  There are intellectual reasons aplenty for not believing that I will look at in the coming weeks.  There are some who do not believe because of the way they were brought up or educated, or because they have simply adopted the beliefs of the culture in which they grew up.  The same is probably true of many Christians, Muslims, Jews, Hindus, Buddhists, etc.

Other atheists choose atheism because they just feel that atheism is right.  The intellectual reasons either escape them or simply don’t matter because they follow their feelings that atheism is the right choice.  Perhaps they looked into other faiths and couldn’t decide which one suited them most and so decided on none.  Again I strongly suspect that the same is true for many people of faith who hold their beliefs because they just seem right to them.

There is another group though who are labelled as apatheists.  Apatheists or people who are apathetic with regards to religion choose atheism as a default option.  Rather they don’t choose at all, they simply don’t care one way or the other about or for questions of religion.

I don’t mind admitting that I find the idea of apatheists more than a little unsettling.  How can people not care?  For me a key event that triggered my own exploration of religion and rejection of many aspects of it was the attack on the World Trade Centre in 2001.  In that case religion was used as a force for evil (and I don’t use the word lightly) to motivate people into attacking the West.  The reaction to this from religious groups helped to cement my views.  These views though are more about religion than about the existence or non-existence of God or gods.  Turned away from religion I explored the matter of existence from an intellectual view point.  Finding no compelling reason I am an atheist.  For other people 9/11 drew them into a faith a cemented their ties with a religion, perhaps they drew strength from their faith where I saw only division.  One thing 9/11 did was to prompt people to decide on faith.

Yet to have people who just don’t care strikes me as callous and more than a little odd.  Was 2001 really so long ago that people have forgotten about it?  Were the events so far removed from their lives that they’ve been able to dismiss them as unimportant?  I do not understand it and I do not feel that it is right.  Yet it must be the default position for anyone who comes into this world.

A child is born with no knowledge of religion and is taught all that they later know about the gods or God, about faith and about the organisations that are built on these viewpoints.  By my definition of atheism, that it is a lack of belief in God or gods, a child has had no chance to believe or not.  They fail to believe because they do not know that there is a choice.  These are not atheists but apatheists.  Once apprised of the facts they can choose to believe in one faith or none and can choose their own reasons for doing so.  To remain uncommitted is not something that makes sense to me.

I should point out that apatheist here is a different stance than agnosticism.  An agnostic has explored the ideas of faith and no faith and decided that they haven’t got enough information to choose.  The information is not quite compelling one way or the other.  They are not indifferent but intellectually honest.  Being unable to know in the true sense of the word they wait patiently for a juicy piece of evidence or reasonable argument that may sway them.  This is not a lack of interest or a path of ignorance but a balancing act of competing ideas.  Atheism answers the question of belief and agnosticism answers the question of knowledge.  They are not on the same scale of belief.

Perhaps an apatheist is simply exercising the same lack of interest in God that they see God exercising in them. Now there’s an idea, if a callous one.

I originally wrote this for Off The Map – Atheist in 2009 as part of a series explaining why I lacked belief in gods.

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Belief vs belief

“Atheists don’t believe in anything” is an odd thing to say, when you think about it. It’s based on a twisted and confused understanding of what belief really is. Very simply put, in everyday conversation, ‘belief’ refers to a person’s convictions. They are matters of faith rather than ones where evidence or proof is thought to be evidence or even relevant. In matters of philosophy a ‘belief’ is ‘any fact of the matter or proposition which might be held to be true’, or what we think of as being true for everyone and everything, for example:

It is Friday.
I was born more than 3 days ago.
The sun will rise in the east and set in the west (relative to my current location).

That kind of thing are objectively true (or false) for everyone. Beliefs can be very specific or very general, trivial or serious. Beliefs can be suppositions (if the sun had come out it would have been a brighter day) or absolute statements of fact (If Alex is taller than Beth and Beth is taller then Cait then Alex is taller than Cait).

Philosophically ‘beliefs’ have truth value. They are capable of being true or false.

We have two distinct kinds of belief: The kind of beliefs that are either true or false and the kind of beliefs that are strongly held convictions. The latter include:

democracy is the best form of government.
cats are better pets than dogs.
Mozart was the finest composer who ever lived.
apples are a finer food than oranges.

These are subjective and are based on the preferences of the person making them. There is a distinction here that is sometimes lost when we discuss beliefs. How many times have you seen or heard the question “How can an atheist go through life believing in nothing?” or something similar? I’ve even seen it given as a statement and a condemnation. Atheists or rational beliefs are dismissed as having less value than theistic beliefs. Ultimately though, it is a failure of the person asking the question in understanding the difference between conviction and truth.

People of strong conviction even refer to their beliefs as truth, sometimes even capitalising it as Truth to give in added power. I know I’ve done it, I’ve considered some of my own convictions as so obvious and irrefutable that they must be true. Again though this is a confusion between the idea of belief inherent in truth and the belief inherent in a strongly held conviction. There being no way to prove (or disprove) the existence of God or gods, religion is a belief that falls firmly within the bounds of a conviction and is incapable of being true or false without further evidence. That isn’t to say that we cannot glean honest and good ideas from religion, just that the idea of proof isn’t relevant.

What meaning do we give to our lives without the firm convictions of religious belief? It isn’t as easy as taking the beliefs of a community (a church) or a family and adopting them. An atheist instead has to ascribe meaning to their own life and adopt those convictions that make sense. For me that gives the beliefs that I hold greater strength. I have challenged them myself in arriving at them (and continue to do so) so they are much stronger as a result. The values that I have and the beliefs that I hold have come about through questioning and evaluating them. It is true that some theists do this too. I just don’t think that they do it as often.

When someone says of an atheist that we don’t believe in anything they are failing to grasp the nature of belief. Both a theist and a non-theist may share identical beliefs in things that have truth value but will differ in beliefs that are formed of conviction. We both have convictions and true beliefs but some people fail to grasp the difference and place them together. This doesn’t help anyone to discuss or understand the differences in their beliefs.

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Jesus: Prophet of Islam

I must admit to a little bit of joy on hearing this news. As you probably know Islam considers Jesus to be a prophet along the lines of Moses, Abraham and, of course, Muhammad (PBUM).

Islamic group MyPeace, which wants to encourage Christians and Muslims to find common ground by raising awareness that Islam believed in Jesus Christ.

Isn’t that nice? Unfortunately for this peaceful attempt at opening dialogue between the faiths the Christians in Sydney don’t like it much.

Bishop Julian Porteous, from the Archdiocese of Sydney, says Christians believe that Jesus “is more than a prophet”…”In Australia with its Christian heritage a billboard carrying the statement `Jesus A prophet of Islam’ is provocative and offensive to Christians.”

Needless to say someone vandalised the billboard.

Christians, if you didn’t know, Islam believes in the same god as the Jews and the Christians. This is the god of Abraham and Isaac. They believe in Jesus, just like you but they have a different take on his divinity. Surely there is some common ground that you can meet on?

Of course not. As an atheist I will just sit back and watch the fireworks while feeling smug and superior to you all. That is what we do after all.


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No Muslim woman casts vote

This is an example of sexism and religion at work. Not that the two don’t often go hand in hand anyway.

Purulia (WB), May 7 (PTI) Not a single Muslim woman today cast vote in two booths specially arranged for them with women polling staff in Para assembly constituency in Purulia district today.

“It is unfortunate that none of the 641 Muslim women came out to vote in two polling booths despite posting women polling personnel as desired by them,” Sub-divisional officer who is in charge of Para constituency, Abid Hussain said.

While Sk Omar (55), a local male voter, told PTI that the women were willing to vote, but their husbands did not allow them to come out, Mohammed Unus (60) tried to argue that the women boycotted the vote for non-development of the area.

Unus, however, cast his vote.

The women had not voted earlier on the plea that they did not have Electoral Photo Identity Cards since they were unwilling to be photographed by a male photographer, District Magistrate A Singh said.

Honouring their wishes a female photographer had been employed to take their photos for the EPICs, Singh said. PTI CORR PR

Their husbands didn’t allow them to vote. Imagine that. Imagine not being permitted to exercise your right to vote. Imagine having your husband limit your freedoms in such a dogmatic way. Imagine being a man who felt that he had to control his wife to such an extent that she was not allowed to travel to the polling station to vote, even though special consideration for your faith had been made.

That doesn’t sound like a positive, loving relationship, does it? Isn’t it past time that the feminist movement reached beyond the West?


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Sally Army Cheats

The city council of Wellington, New Zealand granted permission to Wellington Rape Crisis for their annual fund raiser. This one day appeal brings in around 20% of the charity’s annual income and goes to help the victims of rape, sexual assault and abuse. They provide support and counselling as well as advocacy for victims and medical centres, police and the courts. They also provide educational resources and referrals to other agencies. Source. All good work and unfortunately necessary.

Wellington require any organisation to get permission to collect money on council land (public highways, shopping centres, etc) which is quite reasonable and no doubt helps to limit swindlers and other bogus charity collections as well as keeping the charity workers in some kind of organised pattern so that everyone doesn’t descend over a single weekend.

The Salvation Army don’t care about that though. They don’t seem to care about the victims of rape or about giving smaller charities a fair chance to collect money. What they’ve done is to compete with Wellington Rape Crisis and defy the council rules by collecting in the middle of the charity’s week long appeal. Another example of Christian charity no doubt.

It makes me wonder if the Salvation Army isn’t getting too big to do good any more. There was a time when I considered the charity to be one of the better Christian charities out there (not that I’d give to a religious charity when there are so many good secular ones out there) but this news is just disturbing. It comes only a fortnight after The Poppy Project was reported to have lost their funding to the Sally Army too (as reported by tenderhooligan). Of course they also have a record of promoting superstition rather than actually helping victims of rape and hold an

International Weekend of Prayer and Fasting for the Victims of Sex Trafficking.

I’m sure that’s a great help. NOT!

If you give to charity please choose one that does some good with your money and treats people fairly. Thank you.


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Katie Price Upsets Church

Attention seeker, Katie Price, has upset the Archdeacon of Oxford by performing the wrong kind of superstitious ritual in an old building. Price was filming with ITV show Ghosthunting With…. in “a church in Great Tew in Oxfordshire and tried to use a Ouija board to contact spirits”.

Rather than being mocked for wasting her time church officials are upset claiming that talking to the air over a board with letters, numbers and words on was “a rather blasphemous and sacrilegious thing to do”. Presumably Price was attempting to conjure the spirits on career longevity or something.

Not only do I find the idea of speaking to spirits utterly ridiculous (if it wasn’t already apparent) but I find the idea of getting upset about it equally ridiculous. This is especially the case given that the organisation getting upset is another ridiculous, superstitious waste of time. I mean, every week people congregate in the building to try to talk to a spirit. So really who is being the most ridiculous?



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Gay activism, Unmarried Rights and Retired Police

Ugandan gay activist Kasha Jacqueline Nabagesera has been given the prestigious Martin Ennals rights award.

In Uganda being gay is such a terrible thing that some people are trying to bring in special laws against it.

In October 2009, an MP introduced a bill that proposed increasing the penalties in Uganda for homosexual acts from 14 years in prison to life.

It also proposed the death penalty for a new offence of “aggravated homosexuality” – defined as when one of the participants is a minor, HIV-positive, disabled or a “serial offender”.

Nabagesera has campaigned against anti-homosexual treatment despite the murder in January of her colleague, David Kato.

I cannot imagine what it must be like to live in fear of my life for simply loving someone. It is really good that she has been recognised and that this issue continues to be in the news.

This may have something to do with the prevalence of Anglicanism in Uganda. Traditional Christian values aren’t too supportive of The Gay.

Did you know that “Common Law” marriage is a complete myth? I did (but then I am very clever) but what I didn’t know was that the law gives better treatment for couples if they aren’t married. At least at the moment.

A couple, Jones and Kernott, lived together for several years. During this time they bought a house and had a couple of children. Then they split up. Ms Jones decided to keep the house and continued to pay the mortgage but Mr Kernott remained on the deeds.

Years later he decides that he wants a share of the value of the house. Now if they’d married the law would have given him the proportion of his contribution back (about 10%) but as an unmarried couple they are simply subject to contract law and he gets half.

For unmarried couples though, the court had to apply strict legal principles, so joint-ownership meant the property was shared 50/50.

So now you know.

Nicholas Francis QC, head of London family law chambers 29 Bedford Row, said the judgement would be a very important precedent and would underline the importance of unmarried couples deciding how much of the home each owns in a declaration of trust.

That should make things a bit more equal. Another nail in the coffin of marriage too.

Source BBC News.

Her Majesty’s Government continues to make austerity cuts. Some West Midland police are being forced to retire after 30 years of service. What of age discrimination laws I hear you cry? Apparently the police aren’t covered. Anyway David “Call me Dave” Cameron has so carefully planned his austerity measures that he’s taken the issue of forced retirement seriously. NOT.

Oh yes, all you coppers who were forced to retire, come back and work for free. Ha, I imagine that will go down like a lead balloon.

Tony Fisher, who was forced to retire as a detective specialising in tackling robbery, said the cost-cutting move was a “slap in the face” after 33 years in the force.

The former detective constable is among hundreds affected by the plan as part of efforts to save tens of millions of pounds in the wake of government spending cuts.

“I was a detective for 26 years and I just don’t see how that role fits in any way as a special constable,” he said.

“It’s a bit of a slap in the face to get rid of you and then say ‘do you want to come back for nothing’. It was adding salt to the wounds.”

But he added that the force was “between a rock and a hard place”.

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